Thursday, August 27, 2020

IPad in India Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

IPad in India - Research Paper Example s most progressive economies regarding correspondence as the nation can increase within the sight of a portion of the world’s biggest correspondence organizations. The item use design in India is profoundly united with worldwide use design. This means the individuals of India change themselves to item designs as it applies to different pieces of the reality where most items are produced. Due to the impact that globalization has on item use design in India, shoppers in most urban pieces of India incline toward advanced item includes similarly as exists in assembling sources like America and Europe. Retailing is a significant wellspring of work for the vast majority in India (Bultez et al., 2009). Along these lines, there is a few retail shops spread all around the nation. The majority of these outlets are anyway loaded up with fundamental electronic and innovation items, for example, PC parts and cell phones. Recently, the utilization of web based life has come to prevailing the mechanism of commercial in India. There is additionally the utilization of sources like TVs, which has the most noteworthy support and reaches (Card, 2009). Bulletins, radio notice, banners and paper commercials are on the whole well known. This area of the paper has been committed to taking a gander at India as a potential and feasible market goal for iPad items. It has been set up that globalization is quick finding the individuals in India thus they appear to be exceptionally best in class with the utilization of innovation apparatuses including cell phones like the iPad. Supporters in India would need to buy the most up to date and most recent discharges on the worldwide market, as and when they are propelled. India has confidence in sorted out market thus manages mediators. The utilization of different types of media has been distinguished to be the best method to connect with a bigger populace of likely clients (Stern, and El-Ansari, 2002). This implies the electronic and press media will all be utilized. Due to the

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Clarence Earl Gideon Was Charged In A Florida State Court With Having

Clarence Earl Gideon was charged in a Florida state court with having broken and entered a poolroom with expectation to submit a wrongdoing. Showing up in court without reserves and without an attorney, Gideon asked the Florida state court to delegate counsel for him, whereupon the accompanying difficulties occurred. The main way Gideon would be delegated a legal advisor on the off chance that it was a legislative center offense. After his conviction, Gideon recorded in the Supreme Court of Florida the present habeas corpus request, assaulting his conviction in light of the fact that his government protected rights were disregarded by the preliminary court's refusal to name counsel. The court, without conclusion, denied alleviation. In the wake of returning to preliminary the Supreme Court found for Gideon. In doing so it announced that all respondents in lawful offense cases reserve the option to a lawyer. Equity Hugo Black, expressed that the court was returning too...old points of reference, souder we accept than the new. In a supposition by Black, communicating the perspectives on seven individuals from the Court, it was held that the Sixth Amendment's arrangement that in every single criminal indictment the charged will appreciate the option to have the help of guidance for his barrier was made mandatory upon the states by the Fourteenth Amendment. The Supreme Court of the United States switched, overruling Betts v. Brady, wherein it had been held that fair treatment of law doesn't require that for each situation, paying little mind to conditions, an impoverished denounced must be outfitted direction by the state. Gideon recieved another preliminary with a legal counselor and the jury absolved him. Can individuals bear the cost of legal counselors, most destitution stricken individuals can't? Gideon was a poor man who could't pay a legal advisor to help him for his situation, so he was viewed as a layman at his preliminary. A great many people don't know about Clarence Earl Gideon or acknowledge how much his case impacts us in our regular daily existence. Gideon's case with the Supreme Court of the United States appears in the meranda rights, and in our courts ordinary. Recall this, on the off chance that you can't manage the cost of a legal counselor, and the courts choose you one, this is on the grounds that Clarence Earl Gideon got that going. Book index Gideon v. Wainwright, 372 U.S. 335 (1963)

Friday, August 21, 2020

Pharmacy Essay Samples

Pharmacy Essay SamplesWhen writing a pharmacy essay, it is important to have some sample essay samples that you can use. There are many websites on the internet that will allow you to get free samples and easy instructions on how to write them. They are available online in html format or text format.Some of the most common questions asked by people who are going to write their essays is what school or program do I go to? Many people will try to help out others with their questions, but don't know where to start. Some people have never even heard of a pharmacy school and just want to know what programs they have. Those answers to your questions are listed on the website to the right.A big problem that people face when they are writing essays is they never know what to put in them. In order to really have a good chance of getting good grades, you need to have a coherent thesis and convince the reader why you are doing what you are doing. This means you need to know what you are writing about and how to relate it to the rest of the information that you are covering. There are many topics that you can cover in an essay, so it's important to decide what area of study you want to write about. There are other questions that are asked as well that can be answered with one of the samples on this website.The next question that people ask is how do I make sure that I have covered all of the topics that I need to? They start the list items on what they are interested in and then start writing. There are a number of examples of essays that cover subjects like 'Getting the best nurse you can find for your job', 'What are the best treatments for people with digestive problems?' and other similar topics.Another option to consider when looking for free sample essays is the websites that allow you to download them. Most of the websites are great for teaching you how to write well. They also provide a link to a section of their site that has helpful links for you to follow. They are also useful because they give you step by step instructions on how to write your essay.However, there are websites that offer some sort of lesson plan to use when you are learning how to write your free online essays. They offer free online lessons and sample essays so that you can start on your essay immediately. Most of the lessons and sample essays that are offered will be used in college and high school.It is also a good idea to use an online teacher or a website that has forums for you to ask questions about your essays. The people who are available for help are many and you can find someone to answer any questions that you may have. The forums are a great way to connect with other students, teachers and people who are interested in helping others with their writing skills.There are many ways to improve your chances of getting a pharmacy degree by writing your own essays. There are many places online that have sample essays that can be used. Always be prepared for your essa y and use sample essays to make sure that you have covered all of the topics that you need to.

Monday, May 25, 2020

Space Is A Priori Intuition Of Transcendental Ideality

In defining space, the largest question Kant had to wrestle with was whether space was a property of objects or a condition set in mental faculty. In order to determine this, space needed to be established as it stands as knowledge. Kant defines space as a priori intuition of transcendental ideality. Kant demonstrates that our sense of space cannot come from experience. When one perceives an object they relate the sensations that coordinate to that object a place. For example, one gets the sensation of the color of an apple and coordinates that color to the apple and the space that the apple occupies, in order for the apple to be red. The color red corresponds to the apple while the color of the table it is resting on coordinates to the table, keeping to two distinct positions in space. In order for an individual to relate an object as outside of them, they must assign them to a place. If this is the case, then space is a necessary base to one’s perception of an object. So one cannot gain the intuition of space empirically as space is necessary to one’s experience of the external world in order to have sensibility, or the faculty to passively know objects through sensation. Space is a condition of the perception of objects rather than a property of the objects thems elves so there cannot be a perception of the objects without space. â€Å"It is impossible to have a representation of there being no space, though one can very well think of space without objects to fill it.† (B39Show MoreRelatedSpace s Perception Of Space1557 Words   |  7 PagesOf defining space, the largest question Kant had to wrestle with was whether space was a property of objects or a condition set in mental faculty. In order to determine this, space needed to be established as it stands as knowledge. Kant defines space as a priori intuition of transcendental ideality. Kant demonstrates that our sense of space cannot come from experience. When one perceives an object they relate the sensations that coordinate to that object a place. For example, one gets the sensationRead More Kants Theory of Knowledge and Solipsism Essay3198 Words   |  13 Pagessimply as a tabula rasa, as supposed by Locke, but must necessarily have an innate structure in order that we may understand the world. For Kant, this a priori structure is essential to philosophy. Kant argued that the simple empiricism of Hume and Berkeley inevitably leads to solipsistic idealism. In contrast, by uncovering the a priori structure of human understanding, as the necessary condition for conscious experience, Kant argued that he was able to avoid idealism, since the proof of theRead MoreEssay The Critical Philosophy of Immanuel Kant2525 Words   |  11 Pagescontains necessity. This interpenetration finds its expression in judgements that are a priori and yet synthetic, on the one hand, and yet synthetic and a priori on the other. Kant thought that he could attain this goal only by way of a changed point of view (Bxvi) referred to as a Copernician revolution. On the supposition, thus far considered valid, that all our knowledge must conform to objects (Bxvi), a priori judgements that enlarge Mans knowledge synthetically are impossible. Here, one needs

Friday, May 15, 2020

Distinctive Voices Essay example - 1079 Words

Compare the way distinctive voices are created in the speeches set for study and one related text. Distinctive voices can lead us to think about significant issues that occur in the world. Distinctive voices are created through a number of language techniques such as rhetorical devices. These enhance the meaning of the speeches and depict the key information that allows listeners to be alert of the issue the speaker is raising. They all challenge society by standing up for people and their own beliefs. Dr. Martin Luther King and Severn Cullis-Suzuki both demonstrate the importance of their discussed issue throughout their speeches. In King’s I Have a Dream, he comments on the issue of black and white segregation and Suzuki raises the†¦show more content†¦An appeal to anaphora is present as she repeats â€Å"I’m only a child†. It is a paradox to state self-evident truths. Between her repetitions of â€Å"I’m only a child†, she is reminding the UN of the disparity between rich and poor countries. Suzuki is clearly alert of the world around her and tells a story of her first few days in Brazil and dictates that a child came to her and said â€Å"I wish I was rich and if I were, I would give all the street children food, clothes, medicine, shelter and love and affection†. Suzuki argues that the government should not be so greedy when we already have everything we need. Her statement creates ethos as she is highlighting how wrong the situation is and she continues to raise the issue that is present in other countries. Martin Luther King relates to historical texts to show evidence that someone else had tried to change American behaviours. The texts are legal documents but peoples are still continuing the previous behaviour. King makes reference to the Declaration of Independence written by Thomas Jefferson. He uses â€Å"We hold these truths to be self-evident that all men are created equal†. This statement aimed to lead one to believe it will be accepted as right to and by everyone and not as an option. King is questioning why the action wasn’t grasped when the document was written. He emphasises the truths of society that should have been changed 150 years before. This leads the listeners to think about the past and thatShow MoreRelatedDistinctive Voices Essay Plan1398 Words   |  6 PagesQuestion: Interesting views on society are conveyed through distinctive voices. Question: Interesting views on society are conveyed through distinctive voices. People in society can have interesting views on issues around the world, these views on society are best conveyed through distinctive voices as it evokes feelings from the listener and allows them to relate to the situation through their own personal experiences. People in society can have interesting views on issues around the world, theseRead MoreModule a Clemmance - Distinctive Voices Life and Crimes of Harry Lavender1687 Words   |  7 PagesHSC STUDY BUDDY 1 Module A –Distinctive Voices Essay Question: Compare the ways distinctive voices are created in ‘The Life and Crimes of Harry Lavender’ and in ONE other related text of your own choosing. As language lies at the core of communication, composers are given the opportunity to use and manipulate written language through the vehicle of distinctive voicesshaping meaning and understanding of the wider world and people within a text. A great range of language techniques are used in my prescribedRead MoreComparsion of Voltaire and Gronniosaw ´s Philosophy Essay1492 Words   |  6 PagesNarrative of the Life of James Albert Ukawsaw Gronniosaw written by himself, (For the purpose of this essay, ‘A Narrative.’) is an autobiographical, and spiritual account of Gronniosaw’s Journey. This essay will look at the narrative techniques and the distinctive features of the language used in both extracts. (Voltaire, Gronniosaw, A230, Assessment Guide, 2013) Compare and contrast the context of each text’s, philosophy and religion, and ask the question, ‘does divine providence and moral choice predetermineRead MorePygmalion Essay1544 Words   |  7 PagesThe distinctive voices, characteristic in any text/s, can be deconstructed to develop an understanding which may validate, challenge or disprove society’s values and/or beliefs within a given context. Language, in all its forms, is a hu man thing, and allows the traces or imprints of human use, not inherently but in its use. A text may promote obvious distinction between the authorial voice and characters viewpoint. This can be seen in the play of Pygmalion in by George Bernard shaw and the filmRead MoreThe Vocal Folds Of The Larynx1456 Words   |  6 Pagesproduced, and the slower air passes the lower the pitch. People are able to produce a wide span of pitches commonly identified as their vocal range. â€Å"In its broadest sense, the term vocal range refers to the full spectrum of notes that a singer’s voice is able to produce, starting from the bottommost note and reaching to the uppermost note (O’Connor. 2013)†. When the larynx is swollen or inflamed, airflow between the lungs and the vocal folds is interrupted, and the body is unable to produce soundRead MoreIs Polyphonic Overtone Singing?1469 Words   |  6 Pagesterminology. The Tuvan throat singing is similar, to a certain extent, to another ancient form of vocal polyphony that is practiced by the Sardinians, whose singing is known as cantu a tenore or Korrektur, Korrekter refers to the â€Å"chest voice†. This is the voice that throat singers use when using khoomei, kargyraa, or any other harmonic-inducing style. The term can also be used to refer to all styles of Tuvan throat singing, much like khoomeii. It can also refer to the feeling of chest resonanceRead MoreExperiments with the Human Voice: Max Mathews Essay example1716 Words   |  7 PagesThe voice is a crucial tool within the history of sound as it appears in so many different, interconnected forms and disguises. An experience of voice auditory within history generally can be experienced through different movements that can be observed with regards to the figure of voice. The voice in terms of presence and sound helps in understanding the voice also in terms of techniques and manipulations. These terms presented are influenced within countles s vocal techniques and manipulations withRead MoreHow Does The Larynx Affect The Natural Flow Of Vocal Communication?1217 Words   |  5 Pageshas to adapt to this new method of speaking, it allows them to still express themselves with their voice, even after surgery. The Larynx is located at the trachea and at the base of the tongue, consisting of three main parts known as Supraglottis, Glottis and Subglottis which all work together to create a properly working Larynx. It separates humans from other mammals because it is responsible for voice resonance and spoken language. The larynx is essential for many other bodily functions includingRead MoreSynopsis Of Concert 1482 Words   |  6 Pagesterminology. The Tuvan throat singing is similar, to a certain extent, to another ancient form of vocal polyphony that is practiced by the Sardinians, whose singing is known as cantu a tenore or Korrektur, Korrekter refers to the â€Å"chest voice†. This is the voice that throat singers use when using khoomei, kargyraa, or any other harmonic-inducing style. The term can also be used to refer to all styles of Tuvan throat singing, much like khoomeii. It can also refer to the feeling of chest resonanceRead MoreReal Life Couples Trouble in The Stockton C ivic Theatre’s Production of Avenue Q 553 Words   |  2 Pagespurpose in life. Princeton, who is played by Jacob Bronson has the ability to connect with the audience despite being visible holding the puppet on stage. Bronson is not only a good actor, but also excels in his singing. He has a very loud and distinctive voice which is proven in the beginning of the play, â€Å"What Do You Do with a B.A. in English?† Kate Monster, who is played by Randi Linee also has the ability to connect with the audience even though she is clearly visible holding the puppet. She gives

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Epidemic Of The City Of Jacksonville - 983 Words

Statement of Problem In this day in age, we as society sometime forget the importance of helping one another. With that being said, we have an overwhelming amount of people who are homeless here within our city (...........). Citizens of our city are often seen throughout the city on our sidewalks, and street corners begging for money in the hopes of surviving another day. Background/History As previously stated, there is an alarming rate of people who are homeless within the city of Jacksonville. According to the â€Å"Council-On-Homelessness† it was statistically calculated that in 2015, our city has witnessed over 2600 people become homeless (Florida Council on Homelessness). This figure is only based on the amount of citizens who†¦show more content†¦These guidelines and requirements are to determine the eligibility of a homeless applicant as well as the appropriate measurements to be taken if further assistance is needed. First, an applicant must begin with the drafting and processing of an extensive application. Furthermore, the application is to include a generic information form, health evaluation, psych evaluation, criminal and credit background history, and lastly a prefilled resume format form. Moreover, we should aim to help the homeless reinstate themselves back into society. We do not want to enable anyone to take advantage of this housing opportunity. But to utilize it to gain a path towards a better quality of living. Additionally, the housing units themselves will not be in an apartment setting or anything of that nature. But instead, more so a studio type of setting with basic amenities to include: a bed, kitchen area, a small storage closet, and a bathroom with the basic services. Aside from the basic services, occupants will be subjected to inspections of their living space. Furthermore, residents must incorporate a monthly form that reports each resident s progress in obtaining an occupation of some sort. Likewise, thisShow MoreRelatedJacksonville Case Study711 Words   |  3 PagesJacksonville is a city located in the â€Å"Sunshine State.† Situated in northeast part of Florida, Jacksonville has the largest land area of southern cities and is composed of a diverse population including African Americans, Hispanics, and Asians. This city is a melting pot of tourists and travelers who also visit nearb y St. Augustine, the oldest city in Florida. The population, according to the United States Census as of July 1, 2016 is 880,619 (United States Census Bureau [USCB], 2016). The raceRead MoreJane Arminda Delano : The Civil War976 Words   |  4 Pagesthere until 1886. With her great performance in Bellevue, she went with Abram S. Hewitt to observe how he, an administrator, directed a citywide cleanup of sciatica. Then came 2 communicable disease outbreak happenings. In 1888 in Jacksonville, Florida, there was an epidemic of yellow fever. During this time of yellow fever, Miss Delano was a superintendent nurse at Sandhill’s emergency center. The next year, also as a superintendent, she was at the Copper Queen Mining Company Hospital by Bisbee, ArizonaRead MoreFamily Heritage : Jane Arminda Delano1099 Words   |  5 Pagesan ailment with sciatica in 1887. She could observe Abram S. Hewitt, an administrator in action, as he directed the citywide cleanup. Miss Delano’s next experiences deal with managing 2 communicable diseases. The first in 1888 in Jacksonville, Florida, where an epidemic of yellow fever broke out. During this time of yellow fever, Miss Delano was a superintendent nurse at Sandhill’s emergency center. The following year, she went to Copper Queen Mining Company Hospital, also as a superintendent, byRead MoreInjuries Caused During Violence is a Leading Cause of Death and Disability in the US919 Words   |  4 Pagesthe United States. Violence is the threatened or actual use of physical force or power against another person, against oneself, or against a group or community, that either results in injury, death, or deprivation. Violence has become a national epidemic and a major public health issue. In a 1998 study by the University of Pennsylvanias Annenberg School for Communication, 64.8% of the 405 African Americans surveyed viewed domestic violence as one of the most serious issues facing their commu nityRead More Carrying A Concealed Weapon, In California, Is A Threat To Society1040 Words   |  5 PagesColin Loftin, and Brian Wiersema found that the homicide rates did not significantly drop in these states following the adoption of Concealed Carry Laws. Instead, in three of the five cities studied these researchers found a statistically significant increase in the rate of gun related homicides - 74% in Jacksonville, 43% in Jackson, and 22% in Tampa (Ford 65). nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Carrying a concealed weapon creates a false sense of security and diverts attention away from efforts to addressRead MoreSaggin Pants1243 Words   |  5 Pageshighly inappropriate, to such a degree that action must be taken. The style of pants sagging was said to be founded by people in prison. It’s a style that was copied from incarcerated individuals that were gay. This inappropriate trend has started an epidemic in the world that keeps growing. The style of sagging pants has affected communities throughout the world. It has a strong effect on many individuals way of living. Many people say that the hip hop culture is behind this widespread movement. SomeRead MoreThe Worst Mistake Made By Humans1434 Words   |  6 PagesIn Massachusetts, there are 7,755 farms working on 523,00 acres of land (â€Å"Agricultural Resources Facts and Statistics†). This is equivalent to 817 square miles, which roughly equals the size of Jacksonville, Florida (â⠂¬Å"The Largest U.S. City†, 2014). To an uninformed civilian, this chunk of land may seem vast; however, it is quite small in comparison to the 1,565,401 square miles of farmland used in the United States today (â€Å"Agricultural Land†, 2016). Why does it matter how much farmland is in theRead MoreThe Spread Of Hiv / Aids2482 Words   |  10 Pagesunwilling to speak about their experiences due to the negative stigma that comes with the disease. Reflection I chose to write my final paper over HIV/AIDS because it is a topic that is particularly interesting to me, but I chose to research the epidemic in Nigeria because it is one of the most prominently infected areas in Africa. Through my research I have found that there are several different organizations, nonprofits and strategies all attempting to solve the problem of HIV/AIDS. While implementingRead MoreEssay on Lavinia L Dock2527 Words   |  11 Pagesadolescent life was easy going until her mother died when she was eighteen leaving her four younger sisters to care for. It was not until an article in New Century magazine motivated Lavinia to enroll at Bellevue Training School for Nurses in New York City. This is where she started her profession and began innovating new ways of nursing practices (James, 1985). Nursing She enrolled in the Bellevue Training for Nurses, made famous by the works of Florence Nightingale, in 1884, going against the normRead MoreWhy Donuts Are Good for You6728 Words   |  27 Pagespurchased enough flour between 1939 and 1946 to make 1.6 billion doughnuts for our servicemen and women. Adolph Levitt, Inventor First Doughnut Machine Doughnuts Become Mechanized The first doughnut machine was invented in 1920 in New York City by a man named Adolph Levitt, an enterprising refugee from czarist Russia. He had been selling hand-made fried doughnuts from his bakery and hungry theater crowds pressed him to find a way to produce his doughnuts in less time. Levitts doughnut

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Information Technology Storage Devices free essay sample

Storage Functions of secondary storage Secondary storage also called auxiliary storage or backing storage is used to store data and instructions when they are not being processed. Secondary storage is much cheaper than primary storage and is also used to back up for later use. Storage media Storage media are the physical hardware on which a computer keeps data, instructions and information. E. g. a CD, a DVD, a floppy disk, hard disk. Storage device Storage devices record and retrieve data, instructions and information to and from storage media. Accessing Files Serial access means the records are accessed in the order in which they were stored. To read a serial file a computer has to read each record until it reaches the one required. Sequential access means reading or writing data consecutively. With sequential access the records are in a particular order and the records are accessed in sequence. Magnetic tape is accessed sequentially. Direct access or random access it is possible to go directly to a record without having to look at any other records. Magnetic disks, optical disks Zip disks The Zip disk is a medium-capacity removable disk storage system that was introduced by Iomega in late 1994. Originally, Zip disks launched with capacities of 100  MB, but later versions increased this to first 250  MB and then 750  MB. It is a small portable disk. Zip drives are used to backup important data. Advantages * Inexpensive (general) * Can transfer large files from one computer to another * Backup Disadvantages * Cost more than DVd’s or CDR’s * Not many computers have zip drives any more Magnetic Tape Magnetic tape is a ribbon of plastic material coated with a metal oxide film on which data is recorded as magnetized or unmagnified spots. The magnetized spots represent ones and the unmagnetized spots represent zeros. In microcomputers tapes are stored in cartridges. On mainframe computers the tape is stored on reels or cartridges. Magnetic tape cartridges can hold up to 1. 6TB Advantages * Reusable * Easy to transport and store * Cheap * Used for backups or archives Disadvantages * Sequential access * Limited shelf life- 2 years * Must be stored properly in a suitable environment away from smoke dust and humidity * Difficult to update files(cannot make a change to a record without saving over the entire tape) The diagram for representing data on magnetic tape is in the textbook page 10 chapter 3. Floppy disks A 3. 5 inch floppy disk is a removal flexible plastic disk coated with a magnetized material. The disk is contained in a hard plastic case. The term floppy refers back to the 5. 24 â€Å"diskettes that were used in the 1980’s and were actually soft and flexible. Each disk contains a number of concentric rings known as tracks. The tracks are divided into pizza slices called sectors. Data is stored as magnetized or unmagnetized spots. They are used to transfer data between computers and for backup of files. They are slow to access because of slow rotation speeds. They hold 1. 44 MB hold data. Advantages * Direct access * Small * Portable * Suitable for backup * Erasable, reusable and rewritable Disadvantages * Small storage capacity * Limited shelf life * Slow read/write speeds Before a disk is used to stored data it must be formatted. Formatting is the process of preparing a disk to receive and store data. When a disk is formatted the following happens: * All data on the disk is from a erased * The surface of the disk is checked for any physical and magnetic defects. Care of floppy disks * Keep your disks away from liquids, dust, dirt Do not bend disks or handle them roughly * Take care when removing or inserting a disk from a computer’s disk drive * Keep disks in a disk box * Do not leave in the drive Fixed Hard disk Thin rigid, inflexible disks made of polished metal. The surface of each disk platter is covered with a substance that can be magnetized allowing data to be stored as magnetized or unmagnetized spots. Like a floppy a har d disk must be formatted to set up the tracks and sectors. It is faster than a floppy disk because it rotates at a much faster speed. Fixed hard disks can store up to 1 TB. Hard disk The access time from a spinning disk with one read/write head is a combination of: Seek time How long it takes the head to get to the right track Rotational delay or latency time How long it takes for the data to rotate under the head Transmission time The time taken to read the data and transmit it to the CPU. Advantages * Direct access * Fast data transfer speeds * Vast storage capacity * Up to one terabyte Disadvantages * Not Portable Another type of hard disk is the external hard disk. An external hard disk can be used if there is no space in the system unit to house another hard isk. It may come with its own power source and is connected to the system via a special cable. External hard disks can be easily removed and connected to another computer, thereby giving them a certain amount of portability and flexibility of use. Diagrams showing how data is stored on magnetic disks The data is stored in concentric rings called tracks. Disk Sector: each side of the disk is divided into wedge – shaped slices called sectors. A track sector is an area of intersection of a track and a sector. A cluster: is a set of track sectors. A hard disk is a set of hard metal disks mounted on the same spindle. A cylinder is a set of matched tracks on all the disks. Optical disks Disks read by laser lights. They are made up of a type of plastic polycarbonate. The data is stored on a layer inside the plastic. A metal coating usually aluminum reflects the laser light back to a sensor. Main types of optical disks are Cd’s, DVD’s, and blu -ray disks. Advantages * Direct access * Fast data transfer speeds * Vast storage capacity compared to diskettes * Portable * Unaffected by magnetic fields Disadvantages Data on a Cd-ROM cannot be changed * Access times are slower than hard drives CD- ROM Compact Disk read only Memory The user can only read or access what is on the disk, nothing can be changed. The data is encoded and read optically with a low intensity laser light. The data is represented as a series of pits and lands. A pit is a little depression formed by the laser burning into the data layer when the Cd is created. The land is the part between the pits. Reading a Cd is done by shining a laser light at the disk and detecting the changing reflective patterns. When it reflects off the smooth surface land it is interpreted as a 1 bit. When the laser enters a pit there is no reflection it is interpreted as a 0. The speed of a CD- ROM is indicated by a number followed by an X. e. g. 48X, 50X. The higher the number the faster the disk spins. CD’s are used to store software, multimedia. Stores approximately 750 MB. CD-R Compact disk recordable Allows the user to write data onto the disk ONCE using a burner. The disk then becomes a CD-ROM and the contents cannot be changed. Used to create music CD’s. Stores approximately 750 800 MB CD-RW Compact disk Rewritable The data layer uses a phase changing metal alloy film. By using a high intensity laser light the film can be melted to level out the marks made by the laser burner when the data was stored. New data can be recorded using a low intensity light to burn new data. The user can erase and write to the disks many times. Used for backup. DVD Digital versatile Disk DVD- ROM DVD – R DVD – RW They are similar to CD’s but can hold more data. The tracks on a DVD are closer together thus allowing more tracks. Pits are smaller on a DVD. This means many more pits. The DVD stores approximately 4. 7 GB 17GB. Used to store Movies. CD –ROM –ROM and DVD – ROM ( more specific advantages and disadvantages Advantages * They hold far more data than floppy disks. * They are less expensive than hard disks Disadvantages * They data transfer rate and data access times are slower than for hard disks. CD-R and DVD –R ( more specific advantages and disadvantages) Advantages * CD-R and DVD-R are cheaper than the RW’s Disadvantages * They can only. be recorded once, so if an error occurs then the disk has to be thrown away CD-RW and DVD –RW (specific advantages and disadvantages) Advantages * They can be used many times Disadvantages * It is possible to overwrite data Blu- Ray Capacity 25 GB 50GB. It is suitable for recording, rewriting high definition videos. While Cd’s and DVD’s rely on a red laser to read and write, Blu- ray uses a blue violet laser. Advantages * Direct access * Fast data access speed is faster than with other optical media * Vast storage capacity * Portable * Users can copy the content of a disk a limited number of times Disadvantages * Expensive Care of Optical disks * CD’s DVD’s should be stored in their cases when not in use to prevent them from being scratched or getting dirty. * Avoid soiling the surface of the disk – hold it by the edge * Keep your CD’s clean by gently wiping both sides with a clean damp cloth from the centre to the outer edge * Do not write on the top side of the Cd with a ball point pen or other hard object as this can damage the CD. Use a CD marker instead. * Do not expose a Cd to high temperature or humidity for an extended period of time. Flash Memory It is based on EEPROM (electrically erasable programmable read only memory) Flash memory is Non- volatile. Reading and writing to flash memory is very fast. This is because data in flash memory can be erased a block at a time instead of only a single byte at a time as is the case with EEPROM. Flash memory got its name because a block of memory cells is erased in a single action of flash. Flash memory cards are used in digital cameras. These include compact flash, SmartMedia, MultiMediaCard. Flash memory is also used in PC’s, cell phones PDA’s, MP3 players and video game consoles. Capacity -2GB – 16 GB. Advantages * Small * Portable * High data transfer speeds to PC’s * Large storage capacity * Direct access Disadvantages * Limited storage compared to a hard disk * May need special software to be used with PC’s USB drive This is a type of flash memory storage device which is called flash drive, flash pen, thumb drive, key drive, USB drive. They are small and plug into a USB port. Capacity 16 GB. Advantages * Easy to use * Convenient * Large storage capacity * Plug and play * Fast access * Direct Access Disadvantages * Easy to lose * Not possible to write protect the data